is a football (soccer) club from Spain.
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About Real Madrid
Real Madrid Club de Fútbol (, commonly known as Real Madrid) is a professional association football club based in Madrid, Spain. It is the Football records in Spain in Football in Spain and was voted by FIFA as the most successful club of the 20th century, having won a record thirty-one La Liga titles, seventeen Copa del Rey, a record nine UEFA Champions League and two UEFA Cups. Real was a founding member of FIFA and the now-defunct G-14 group of Europe's leading football clubs as well as its replacement, the European Club Association.
Founded in 1902, Real Madrid has since spent all of its history in the top flight of Spanish football. In the 1940s, the club, the Estadio Santiago Bernabéu and the Ciudad Deportiva, Madrid were rebuilt following the Spanish Civil War. The club established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football during the 1950s. In the 1980s, the club had one of the best teams in Spain and Europe (known as Quinta del Buitre
), winning two UEFA Cups, five Spanish championships in a row, one Spanish cup and three Spanish Super Cups.
The club's traditional home colours are all white. Its crest has been changed several times in attempts to modernise or re-brand; the current crest is a modified version of the one first adopted in the 1920s. Real's home is the 80,354-person-capacity Santiago Bernabéu Stadium football stadium in downtown Madrid, where it has played since 1947. Unlike most European football clubs, Real Madrid's members (socios) have owned and operated the club since its inception. Real is the world's richest football club (Euro366m) in terms of revenue.
Real Madrid started when football was introduced to Madrid by the professors and students of the Institución Libre de Enseñanza
, which included several Oxbridge graduates. They founded Football Club Sky
in 1897, playing on Sunday mornings at Moncloa. It split into two clubs in 1900: New Foot-Ball de Madrid
and Club Español de Madrid. The latter club split again in 1902, resulting in the formation of Madrid Football Club
on 6 March 1902. In 1920, the club's name was changed to Real Madrid after Alfonso XIII of Spain granted the title of Real Sports (Royal) to the club.
In 1929, the first La Liga 1929 was founded. Real Madrid lead the first edition until the last match, a loss to Athletic Bilbao meant they finished runners-up to Barcelona. Real Madrid won its first League title in the La Liga 1931-32. The Whites won the League again the following year, becoming the first side to have won the championship twice.
Santiago Bernabéu Yeste became president of Real Madrid in 1945. Under his presidency, the club, the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium and the Ciudad Deportiva were rebuilt following the Spanish Civil War. Beginning in 1953, he embarked upon a strategy of signing world-class players from abroad, the most prominent of them being the signing of Alfredo di Stéfano.
In 1955, acting upon the idea proposed by the French sports journalist and editor of L'Équipe
Gabriel Hanot, and building upon the Latin Cup
(a tournament involving clubs from France, Spain, Portugal and Italy), Bernabéu met in the Ambassador Hotel in Paris with Bedrignan and Gusztáv Sebes and created what today is known as the UEFA Champions League. It was under Bernabéu's guidance that Real Madrid established itself as a major force in both Spanish and European football. The club won the European Cup five times in a row between 1956 and 1960, which included the 7–3 Hampden Park 1960 European Cup Final against Eintracht Frankfurt in European Cup 1959–60. The club won the European Cup for a sixth time in European Cup 1965–66 defeating FK Partizan 2–1 in 1966 European Cup Final with a team composed entirely of nationally born players (known as the Ye-yé (Real Madrid) team) – a first in the competition. The name "Ye-yé" came from the "Yeah, yeah, yeah" chorus in the Beatles' song "She Loves You" after four members of the team posed for Diario Marca dressed in Beatles wigs. The Ye-yé generation was also European Cup runner-up in 1962 European Cup Final and 1964 European Cup Final.
In the 1970s, Real Madrid won 5 league championships and 3 Spanish Cups. On 2 July 1978, club president Santiago Bernabéu died while the Football World Cup 1978 was being played in Argentina. In his honor FIFA decreed three days of mourning during the tournament. The following year, the club organized the first edition of Trofeo Santiago Bernabéu in the memory of its former president.
By the early 1980s, Real Madrid had lost its grasp on the La Liga title until a new batch of home-grown stars brought Football in Spain success back to the club. Spanish sport journalist Julio César Iglesias gave to this generation the name Quinta del Buitre
("Vulture's Cohort"), which was derived from the nickname given to one of its members, Emilio Butragueño. The other four members were Manuel Sanchís Hontiyuelo, Rafael Martín Vázquez, Míchel (footballer) and Miguel Pardeza. With La Quinta del Buitre
(reduced to four members when Pardeza left the club for Real Zaragoza in 1986) and notable players like goalkeeper Francisco Buyo, right defender Miguel Porlán Chendo
and Mexico striker Hugo Sánchez, Real Madrid had one of the best teams in Spain and Europe during the second half of the 1980s, winning two UEFA Cups, five La Liga in a row, one Spanish cup and three Supercopa de España.
In July 2000, Florentino Pérez was elected club president. His campaign vowed to erase the club's debt and modernize the club's facilities. However, the primary electoral promise that propelled Pérez to victory was the signing of Luís Figo. The following year, the club controversially got its training ground rezoned and used the money to begin assembling the famous Galáctico side including players such as Zinédine Zidane, Ronaldo, Luís Figo, Roberto Carlos (footballer), Raúl González and David Beckham. It is debatable whether the gamble paid off, as despite a European Cup win in 2002, followed by the League in 2003, the club failed to win a major trophy for the next three seasons.
Ramón Calderón was elected as club president on 2 July 2006 and subsequently appointed Fabio Capello as the new coach and Predrag Mijatović as the new sporting director. Real Madrid won the La Liga title in 2007 for the first time in four years but Capello was sacked. In the Real Madrid C.F. season 2007–08, The Whites won the domestic league for the La Liga 2007–08, achieving their first consecutive league title in eighteen years.
Crest and colours
The first crest of Real Madrid had a simple design consisting of a decorative interlacing of the three initials of the club, "MCF" for Madrid Club de Fútbol, in dark blue on a white shirt.
The first change in the crest occurred in 1908 when the letters adopted a more streamlined form and appeared inside a circle. The next change in the configuration of the crest did not occur until the presidency of Pedro Parages in 1920. At that time, Alfonso XIII of Spain granted the club his royal patronage which came in the form of the title "Real", roughly translated as "Royal". Thus, Alfonso's crown was added to the crest and the club styled itself Real Madrid Club de Fútbol
. The striped shirt was replaced by an all-white version, modeled after the shirt worn by Corinthian F.C, in 1902. In the same year, the blue socks were replaced by black ones. By the early 1940s the manager changed the kit again by adding buttons to the shirt and the club's crest on the left breast (which have remained ever since). On 23 November 1947, in a game against Atlético Madrid at the Metropolitano
Stadium, Real Madrid became the first Spanish team to wear numbered shirts. Real Madrid's first shirt sponsor, Zanussi, agreed for the 1982–83, 1983–84 and 1984–85 seasons. Following that, the club was sponsored by Parmalat and Otaysa before a long-term deal was signed with Teka in 1992. In 2001, Real Madrid ended their contract with Teka and for one season used the Realmadrid.com logo to promote its website. Then, in 2002, a deal was signed with Siemens AG and in 2006, the BenQ logo appeared on the club's shirt. Real Madrid's current shirt sponsor is bwin.com following the economic problems of BenQ Siemens.
After moving between grounds the team moved to the "Campo de O'Donnell"
in 1912, which remained its home ground for eleven years. This was the Santiago Bernabéu Stadium as it is known today, although it did not acquire this name until 1955. Since then, there have been a number of reductions due to modernizations (the last standing places went away in 1998–99 in response to UEFA regulations which forbids standing at matches in the UEFA competition), countered to some extent by expansions.
The Bernabéu has hosted the UEFA European Football Championship final, the 1982 FIFA World Cup final, the 1957 European Cup Final, 1969 European Cup Final and 1980 European Cup Final European Cup finals and is due to host the 2010 UEFA Champions League Final. The stadium has its own Madrid Metro station along the 10 line called Santiago Bernabéu
. The Bernabeu has recently been upgraded to Elite Football Stadium status by UEFA.
On 9 May 2006, the Alfredo Di Stéfano Stadium was inaugurated at the City of Madrid where Real Madrid usually trains. The inaugural match was played between Real Madrid and Stade Reims, a rematch of the 1956 European Cup final. Real Madrid won the match 6–1 with goals from Sergio Ramos, Antonio Cassano (2), Roberto Soldado (2), and José Manuel Jurado. The venue is now part of the Ciudad Real Madrid, the club's new training facilities located outside Madrid in Valdebebas. The stadium holds 5,000 people and is Real Madrid Castilla's home ground. It is named after former Real footballer Alfredo di Stéfano.
Statistics and records
Real Madrid are among the best teams in La Liga, therefore players like Manuel Sanchís Hontiyuelo holds the record for Real Madrid appearances, having played 712 first-team matches between 1983 and 2001. Forward Raúl González (footballer) comes second, having played 700 times. The record for a goalkeeper is held by Iker Casillas, with 440 appearances. With 127 caps (47 while at the club), Luís Figo of Portugal is Real's most capped international player.
Officially, Real Madrid's highest home attendance is 83,329 for a Copa del Rey match in 2006. The current legal capacity of Santiago Bernabéu Stadium is 80,354. The club's Average attendances of European football clubs in Real Madrid C.F. season 2007–08 was 76,234, the highest in List of association football competitions UEFA (European competitions). Real have also set records in Spanish football, most notably the most domestic titles (31 as of 2007–08) and the most seasons won in a row (5, during 1960–65 and 1985–90). With 121 matches (from 17 February 1957 to 7 March 1965), the club holds the record for longest unbeaten run at home in La Liga.
The Whites also hold the record for winning the UEFA Champions League nine times and for the most semi-final appearances (21). Raúl González is the all-time UEFA Champions League top scorer, with 64 goals. The team has the record number of consecutive participation in the European Cup with 15, from 1955–56 to 1969–70.
In June 2009, the club broke its own record for the Transfer (football) Highest transfer fees in the History of association football by agreeing to pay Manchester United F.C. €96 million (United States dollar131.5 million, Pound sterling80 million) for the services of Cristiano Ronaldo. The fee of €76 million (over $100 million, £45.8 million) for Zinedine Zidane's transfer from Juventus F.C. to Real Madrid in 2001 was the previous highest transfer fee ever paid. In June 2009, Real Madrid also agreed to buy Kaká from A.C. Milan for a fee that broke the previous record in pounds sterling. The club's record sale came on 1 September 2008, when they sold Robinho to Manchester City for €42 million (£32.5 million).
Supporters and rivalries
During most home matches the majority of the seats in the stadium are occupied by season ticket holders, of which there are average of 68,670. To become a season ticket holder one must first be a socio
, or club member. Not all members are able to get a season ticket. In addition to members, the club has more than 1,800 peñas (official, club-affiliated supporters' groups) in Spain and around the world. Real Madrid has the first highest average all-time attendance in Spanish football and regularly attract over 65,000 fans to Santiago Bernabéu Stadium; it was the second best-supported La Liga team in the 2004–05 season, with an average gate of 71,900.. One of the favorite places for Real Madrid fans is the calle Montera between Gran Via and the Puerta del Sol, here those who have no tickets to the match meet new people and relaxed before the start of a game. When Real Madrid wins a title it is traditional for the fans to go to the Cibeles with a blue shirt and sing facing the sun as the team arrives.
The club has a large and diverse fanbase, who hold some long-standing rivalries with other clubs; It semiannually contests the El Clásico with FC Barcelona, its most notable rival. Some of Real Madrid's fans are the so-called Ultras Sur
supporters. They are known for their right-wing politics. The Ultras Sur have developed an alliance with some S.S. Lazio Irriducibili
fans. On several occasions they have racially abused opposing players, and have been investigated by UEFA for doing so.
The rivalry with Barcelona projects what some regard as the political tensions felt between Castile (historical region) and Catalan people. Madrid is the seat of the government and of the royal family, and, especially during the Francoist era, it came to represent the conservative centripetal forces.
During the 1950s, the rivalry was intensified further when the clubs disputed the signing of Alfredo di Stéfano, who finally played for Real Madrid and was key in the subsequent success achieved by the club. The 1960s saw the rivalry reach the UEFA stage when they met twice at the UEFA Champions League, Real Madrid winning in 1960 and Barça winning in 1961. In 2000, the rivalry was reinforced following the controversial decision by Luís Figo to leave Barça and sign for Real Madrid. The two teams met again in the UEFA Champions League 2001–02 semi-final. Real Madrid, the eventual champion, won the clash dubbed by Spanish media as the Match of the Century
. As the two biggest and most successful clubs in Spain, the rivalry is renewed on an annual basis with both teams often challenging each other for the league championship.
El Derbi madrileño
The club's nearest neighbour is Atlético Madrid, which is also seen as a rival by Real Madrid fans. Although Atlético was originally founded by three Basque people students in 1903, it was joined in 1904 by dissident members of Madrid FC
. Further tensions came because initially Real supporters came from the middle class while the Atlético supporters were drawn from the working class. Today these distinctions are largely blurred. They met for the first time on 21 February 1929 in matchday three of the first La Liga 1929 at the former Estadio Chamartín. It was the first official derby of the new tournament, and Real won 2–1.
Between 1961 and 1989, when Real dominated La Liga, only Atlético offered it any serious challenge, winning Liga titles in 1966, 1970, 1973 and 1977. In 1965, Atlético became the first team to beat Real at the Bernabéu in eight years. Real Madrid's record against Atlético in more recent times is very favorable. A high point coming in the La Liga 2002-03, when The Whites clinched the La Liga title after beating Atlético 4–0 at the Vicente Calderón Stadium.
It was under Florentino Pérez's presidency (2000-2006) that Real Madrid started harbouring its current ambition of becoming the world's richest professional football club. The club ceded part of its training grounds to the city of Madrid in 2001 and sold the rest to four corporations: Repsol YPF, Mutua Automovilística de Madrid, Sacyr Vallehermoso and OHL.
The sale wiped out its debts, paving the way for the club to buy the world's most expensive players such as Zinédine Zidane, Luís Figo, Ronaldo and David Beckham. The city had rezoned the training grounds for development, a move which in turn increased their value, and then bought the site.
The sale of the training ground for office buildings cleared Real Madrid's debts of €270m and enabled the club to embark upon an unprecedented spending spree which brought big-name players to the club. Moreover, the money gained was spent on a state-of-the-art training complex on the city's outskirts.
After the 2004–05 season, Real Madrid ended Manchester United's eight-year reign as the biggest earners in world football. Real's income to the year ending 30 June 2005 jumped 17 per cent to €275.7m (£190m).
Though Pérez's policy resulted in increased financial success based on the exploitation of the club's high marketing potential around the world, especially in Asia, it came under increasing criticism for being focused too much on marketing the Real Madrid brand and not enough on the performances of the team.
In January 2007, Real Madrid paid their debts of €224 million and fell to second spot behind Manchester United. However, they reached the top again two months later after completing an image rights deal with Adidas worth 762 million. Manchester United's debt was €872 million in 2007, down from €1.25 billion in 2005.
In September 2007, Real Madrid was considered the most valuable football brand in Europe by BBDO, and is ranked as the second most valuable club in football with a value of €951 mil (£640 million / $1.285 billion) as of May 2008, only beaten by Manchester United with a value of 1.8 billion euros (£906 million)
Spanish teams are limited to three players without European Union citizenship. The squad list includes only the principal nationality of each player; several non-European players on the squad have dual citizenship with an EU country. Also, players from the ACP countries—countries in Africa, the Caribbean, and the Oceania that are signatories to the Cotonou Agreement—are not counted against non-EU quotas due to the Kolpak ruling.
Board of Directors
- President: Florentino Pérez
- Vice-President: Eduardo Fernández de Blas
- Secretary: Enrique Sánchez González
- Director General and Presidential Aide: Jorge Valdano
- Director General of the President's Office: Manuel Redondo
- Sporting Director: Miguel Pardeza
There have been 41 managers of Real Madrid since the appointment of the club's first professional manager, Arthur Johnson (manager) in 1910. The longest-running manager in terms of time and games is Miguel Muñoz (1960–1974) with 604 matches. Argentine Luis Carniglia is Real's most successful permanent manager in terms of percentage of wins with 69.81%, while Jacinto Quincoces is team's least successful (37.21%).
Since its foundation, Real Madrid has been owned and operated only by its members (all Spain) called socios
, unlike most European football clubs. Santiago Bernabéu Yeste remains the longest-running president of The Whites (35 years, from 1943 to 1978). On July 2000, former Real's player Alfredo di Stéfano is appointed Honourary President of the Club.
Historically, Real Madrid is Football records in Spain, having won 57 domestic trophies, and one of the most recognized football clubs in the world, having won 15 European trophies, making them the UEFA competition records By Club and International club competition records World-wide Ranking for international official titles won by squad .28top 20.29 for International club competition records, all recognized by UEFA and FIFA. The club was placed first in the FIFA Clubs of the 20th Century's selection on 23 December 2000. It also received the FIFA Order of Merit in 2004. Added to this, Real is allowed to wear the European Champion Clubs' Cup on their shirt during UEFA Champions League matches as they have won more than five European Cups.
- Copa del Rey
- Copa de la Liga
- UEFA Champions League
- UEFA Cup
- UEFA Cup Winners' Cup
- Intercontinental Cup and FIFA Club World Cup statistics
- UEFA Super Cup